Digital simulation-based training: a meta-analysis

This study examines how design characteristics in digital simulation-based learning environments moderate self-efficacy and transfer of learning. Drawing on social cognitive theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the meta-analysis psychometrically cumulatedk = 15 studies of 25 years of research with a total sample size of N = 2274 learners. The findings indicate that high levels of user control result in higher estimates of self-efficacy and transfer. Offering assessment feedback after rather than during training led to higher efficacy beliefs and transfer. Effects of social, narrative and multimedia characteristics were nonsignificant. Implications for computer-based instructional design and directions for future research associated with motivational outcomes in technology-enhanced learning are discussed.

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